An antioxidant that targets specific cell structures -- mitochondria -- may be able to reverse some of the negative effects of aging on arteries, reducing the risk of heart disease, according to a new study by the University of Colorado Boulder.
When the research team gave old mice -- the equivalent of 70- to 80-year-old humans -- water containing an antioxidant known as MitoQ for four weeks, their arteries functioned as well as the arteries of mice with an equivalent human age of just 25 to 35 years.
The researchers believe that MitoQ affects the endothelium, a thin layer of cells that lines our blood vessels. One of the many functions of the endothelium is to help arteries dilate when necessary. As people age, the endothelium is less able to trigger dilation and this leads to a greater susceptibility to cardiovascular disease.
"One of the hallmarks of primary aging is endothelial dysfunction," said Rachel Gioscia-Ryan, a doctoral student in CU-Boulder's Department of Integrative Physiology and lead author of the new study. "MitoQ completely restored endothelial function in the old mice. They looked like young mice."
The study, published in the Journal of Physiology, was funded by the National Institute on Aging, one of the 27 institutes and centers of the National Institutes of Health and a leader in the scientific effort to understand the nature of aging.
To trigger blood vessel dilation, the endothelium makes nitric oxide. As we age, the nitric oxide meant to cause dilation is increasingly destroyed by reactive oxygen species such as superoxide, which are produced by many components of our body's own cells, including organelles called mitochondria.
In a double-whammy, superoxide also reacts directly with the enzyme that makes nitric oxide, reducing the amount of nitric oxide being produced to begin with. All of this means less blood vessel dilation.
Even in the young and healthy, mitochondria produce superoxide, which is necessary in low levels to maintain important cellular functions. Superoxide is kept in check by the body's own antioxidants, which combine with superoxide to make it less reactive and prevent oxidative damage to cells.
"You have this kind of balance, but with aging there is this shift," said Gioscia-Ryan, who works in Professor Douglas Seals' Integrative Physiology of Aging Laboratory at CU-Boulder. "There become way more reactive oxygen species than your antioxidant defenses can handle."
That phenomenon, known as oxidative stress, occurs when the cells of older adults begin to produce too much superoxide and other reactive oxygen species. Mitochondria are a major source of superoxide in aging cells. The increased superoxide not only interacts with nitric oxide and the endothelium, but can also attack the mitochondria themselves. The damaged mitochondria become increasingly dysfunctional, producing even more reactive oxygen species and creating an undesirable cycle.
Past studies have looked at whether taking antioxidant supplements long term could improve vascular function in patients with cardiovascular disease by restoring balance to the levels of superoxide, but they've largely shown that the strategy isn't effective.
This new study differs because it uses an antioxidant that specifically targets mitochondria. Biochemists manufactured MitoQ by adding a molecule to ubiquinone (also known as coenzyme Q10), a naturally occurring antioxidant. The additional molecule makes the ubiquinone become concentrated in mitochondria.
"The question is, 'Why aren't we all just taking a bunch of vitamin C?" Gioscia-Ryan said. "Scientists think that, taken orally, antioxidants like vitamin C aren't getting to the places where the reactive oxygen species are being made. MitoQ basically tracks right to the mitochondria."
The findings of the study indicate that the strategy of specifically targeting the mitochondria may be effective for improving the function of arteries as we age. In addition to improving endothelial function, the MitoQ treatment increased levels of nitric oxide, reduced oxidative stress and improved the health of the mitochondria in the arteries of old mice.
12/26/13 Portland, Ore.
Researchers at Oregon Health & Science University have discovered that an antioxidant designed by scientists more than a dozen years ago to fight damage within human cells significantly helps symptoms in mice that have a multiple sclerosis-like disease.
The antioxidant — called MitoQ — has shown some promise in fighting neurodegenerative diseases. But this is the first time it has been shown to significantly reverse an MS-like disease in an animal.
The discovery could lead to an entirely new way to treat multiple sclerosis, which affects more than 2.3 million people worldwide.
Multiple sclerosis occurs when the body's immune system attacks the myelin, or the protective sheath, surrounding nerve fibers of the central nervous system. Some underlying nerve fibers are destroyed. Resulting symptoms can include blurred vision and blindness, loss of balance, slurred speech, tremors, numbness and problems with memory and concentration.
The antioxidant research was published in the December edition of Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Molecular Basis of Disease. The research team was led by P. Hemachandra Reddy, Ph.D., an associate scientist in the Division of Neuroscience at OHSU's Oregon National Primate Research Center.
To conduct their study, the researchers induced mice to contract a disease called experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, or EAE, which is very similar to MS in humans. They separated mice into four groups: a group with EAE only; a group that was given the EAE, then treated with the MitoQ; a third group that was given the MitoQ first, then given the EAE; and a fourth "control" group of mice without EAE and without any other treatment.
After 14 days, the EAE mice that had been treated with the MitoQ exhibited reduced inflammatory markers and increased neuronal activity in the spinal cord — an affected brain region in MS — that showed their EAE symptoms were being improved by the treatment. The mice also showed reduced loss of axons, or nerve fibers and reduced neurological disabilities associated with the EAE. The mice that had been pre-treated with the MitoQ showed the least problems. The mice that had been treated with MitoQ after EAE also showed many fewer problems than mice who were just induced to get the EAE and then given no treatment.
"The MitoQ also significantly reduced inflammation of the neurons and reduced demyelination," Reddy said. "These results are really exciting. This could be a new front in the fight against MS.”
Even if the treatment continues to show promise, testing in humans would be years away. The next steps for Reddy's team will be to understand the mechanisms of MitoQ neuroprotection in different regions of the brain, and how MitoQ protects mitochondria within the brain cells of the EAE mice. Mitochondria, components within all human cells, convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell.
There is a built-in advantage with MitoQ. Unlike many new drugs, MitoQ has been tested for safety in numerous clinical trails with humans. Since its development in the late 1990s, researchers have tested MitoQ's ability to decrease oxidative damage in mitochondria.
“It appears that MitoQ enters neuronal mitochondria quickly, scavenges free radicals, reduces oxidative insults produced by elevated inflammation, and maintains or even boosts neuronal energy in affected cells,” said Reddy. The hope has been that MitoQ might help treat neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Studies evaluating its helpfulness in treating those diseases are ongoing.
Peizhong Mao, Ph.D., assistant professor of physiology and pharmacology in the OHSU School of Medicine, Maria Manczak, Ph.D., a research associate at ONPRC, and Ulziibat Shirendeb, Ph.D., a former postdoctoral scientist at ONPRC, are co-authors on Reddy’s study.
The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health (grants AG028072, AG042178 and RR000163) – and a grant from Vertex Pharmaceuticals.
The ONPRC is one of the eight National Primate Research Centers supported by NIH. ONPRC is a registered research institution, inspected regularly by the United States Department of Agriculture. It operates in compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and has an assurance of regulatory compliance on file with the National Institutes of Health. The ONPRC also participates in the voluntary accreditation program overseen by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International (AAALAC).
Oregon Health & Science University is a nationally prominent research university and Oregon’s only public academic health center. It serves patients throughout the region with a Level 1 trauma center and nationally recognized Doernbecher Children’s Hospital. OHSU operates dental, medical, nursing and pharmacy schools that rank high both in research funding and in meeting the university’s social mission. OHSU’s Knight Cancer Institute helped pioneer personalized medicine through a discovery that identified how to shut down cells that enable cancer to grow without harming healthy ones. OHSU Brain Institute scientists are nationally recognized for discoveries that have led to a better understanding of Alzheimer’s disease and new treatments for Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and stroke. OHSU’s Casey Eye Institute is a global leader in ophthalmic imaging, and in clinical trials related to eye disease.
MitoQ is a patented antioxidant that targets the mitochondria, our cellular power plant, to support
optimal cell function and heart, liver and brain health. MitoQ also boosts energy, and reduces the cellular free radical damage that, over time, causes us to age and can manifest as disease.Levels of Cellular CoQ (aka CoQ10, ubiquinone or ubiquinol) decline from age 20, so many people supplement with CoQ to assist energy levels, to support certain health conditions, and when taking medicines that deplete CoQ (like statins for heart disease). Unfortunately, most CoQ formulas do not reach the mitochondria at levels that are needed.MitoQ is different. It has been designed to replenish antioxidant levels in the mitochondria and in so doing assists the cell with repair and regular function, and acts as an antioxidant reservoir to reduce the damage that excess free radicals cause to DNA and cell membranes.MitoQ, when taken with a good diet and regular exercise, will support healthy aging. .
Supplement facts:Adult dose:
Take 2 capsules each morning .Do not exceed dose unless directed by your physician. Consult your physician if you are pregnant or nursing.
Mitochondria are life-giving organelles found in every cell in our body. They provide energy to our cells so that they work in an optimal way, and they fight the oxidative stress caused by free radicals. When cells work optimally we experience good health. Mitochondria are found in the highest numbers in organ cells that consume the most energy, like our skin, heart, brain and liver. Mitochondrial function within these cells depends on the antioxidant support our bodies supply. From the age of twenty our antioxidant levels decline and mitochondrial function declines too.
MitoQ can help when you are healthy. MitoQ is suitable for healthy adults who want to slow the processes associated with aging, and stay well. MitoQ can help when you are not MitoQ is also suitable for adults with health conditions associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress imbalances and the oxidative stress associated with being overweight. MitoQ offers benefits for everyone, for optimal health and longevity it should be part of a lifestyle that includes a healthy diet and regular exercise. New advanced and patented CoQ antioxidant technology Targets mitochondria, the cellular power plant Improves energy levels MitoQ is a patented antioxidant that targets the mitochondria, our cellular power plant, to support optimal cell function and heart, liver and brain health. MitoQ also boosts energy, and reduces the cellular free radical damage that, over time, causes us to age and can manifest as disease.Levels of Cellular CoQ (aka CoQ10, ubiquinone or ubiquinol) decline from age 20, so many people supplement with CoQ to assist energy levels, to support certain health conditions, and when taking medicines that deplete CoQ (like statins for heart disease).
Unfortunately, most CoQ formulas do not reach the mitochondria at levels that are needed.MitoQ is different. It has been designed to replenish antioxidant levels in the mitochondria and in so doing assists the cell with repair and regular function, and acts as an antioxidant reservoir to reduce the damage that excess free radicals cause to DNA and cell membranes.MitoQ, when taken with a good diet and regular exercise, will support healthy aging.oxidative stress.
MitoQ's patented technology delivers powerful antioxidant support to mitochondria, the power source of your cells, restoring their vitality so they can fight the symptoms of aging and support organ health.. New advanced and patented CoQ antioxidant technology Targets mitochondria, the cellular power plant. Improves energy levels. Supports optimal organ health. Slows free radical damage associated with Aging Over a decade of research. MitoQ is an exciting advance in CoQ antioxidant technology that has been extensively researched over the last decade. Research has focused on its beneficial effects for people with poor mitochondrial function, including brain, liver and heart disease, and diabetes. The results show that by delivering targeted support to mitochondria, the powerful organelles found in every cell in your body,
MitoQ has a positive impact on specific health conditions and overall health.MitoQ is also considered to have significant potential as an anti-aging compound because it reduces gradual free radical damage to cellular machinery, cell walls and DNA, slowing the aging process.While MitoQ offers benefits for everyone, for optimal health and longevity it should be part of a lifestyle that includes a healthy diet and regular exercise. MitoQ delivers antioxidant protection to your mitochondria, your 'cellular batteries', 847 x more effectively than any other CoQ form Because you age at the cellular level… Your cells know how to look after you, they just need a bit of help. Every cell in your body is powered by small organelles called mitochondria. They take glucose from the food you eat and oxygen from the air you breathe and convert them into the energy your cells need to keep your organs functioning.
Mitochondria also co-ordinate cell communication, cell death, cell growth and cell differentiation, and use antioxidants to fight the effects of free radical damage and oxidation. At the cellular level, mitochondria call the shots, so you need to keep them healthy. Because aging starts at twenty… As you age your mitochondria do too. From the age of twenty, antioxidant supplies decline, meaning mitochondria can’t fight off free radicals as well as they used to and oxidation sneaks in.You notice it in your skin first, but it’s happening in your other organs too. As oxidative stress damages the cells in your skin and other organs you might start to look and feel older. Until now, the best way to support mitochondria was to take CoQ supplements. But while CoQ supplements do help, they have been unable to deliver CoQ to the mitochondria at levels that make a real difference. Because MitoQ can help.
MitoQ is a Mitochondrial Targeted Antioxidant that delivers antioxidant CoQ directly to your mitochondria, supporting their natural function and restoring their health. This means they can get on with their job, eliminating free radicals, preventing oxidation, and keeping your skin and organs healthy. MitoQ does this 847 times more effectively than any other CoQ formulation on the market. Because when you recharge your cells, you recharge your life. The effect? Your cells start to act and look young. MitoQ supports your mitochondria, your cellular power plant or batteries. It protects mitochondria from damage caused by the free radicals that they generate when they make energy to run your cells. When you protect and support your energy source each of your cells literally has more energy to do its job, whether it's in your heart as it pumps day in and day out, in your brain keeping your brain sharp, or in your liver taking the toxins out of your system · . But what does it really mean?
People that take MitoQ supplements report extra energy, less stress, support for sleep, increased endurance, increased libido and an overall feeling of good health. We all have different levels of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, so we will all experience a different effect. For some, the benefits of MitoQ may include sharper thinking, for others they may mean a more settled stomach. Those people already in good health may feel nothing to begin with, but you will benefit over time as free radical levels decline and MitoQ reduces the gradual damage to your cells known as aging.
Mitochondria are life-giving organelles found in every cell in our body. They provide energy to our cells so that they work in an optimal way, and they fight the oxidative stress caused by free radicals. When cells work optimally we experience good health. Mitochondria are found in the highest numbers in organ cells that consume the most energy, like our skin, heart, brain and liver. Mitochondrial function within these cells depends on the antioxidant support our bodies supply. From the age of twenty our antioxidant levels decline and mitochondrial function declines too.Over 200 conditions are now known to be associated with poor mitochondrial function, including brain, liver and heart disease, and diabetes. Even if you are in perfect health, this gradual loss of mitochondrial function means that as you age your cells don't get the energy they need, leading to sub-optimal function and gradual health decline. MitoQ is the first antioxidant supplement to reach mitochondria at levels that make a difference. When cellular energy generation is restored, cells are able to repair and resume youthful function .